Abstract: The relationship between trade and competition has always been very subtle. The economic crisis of 2009 has once again triggered calls for greater coherence between the two, especially for developing countries. Among various underlying issues, antidumping law no doubts poses the most serious challenge (i.e. the ‘substitution’ debate). In order to conduct a systematic examination, besides normative arguments, empirical studies are also very important. By applying a ‘market share’ test to antidumping cases in China, this paper extends the existing empirical research, which directly applies competition standards to antidumping cases, to one more significant country which has not yet been examined.