At the University of Vienna, a new institute and a chair on “Islamic Pedagogy” was created in 2006. This is the most recent result of the development of the integration of Muslims in Austrian society whose existence dates back to 1912, when, under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Islam got its own legal status as a recognized “religious community”. One of the legal consequences of this recognition is that Muslim children have the right to Muslim religious education in public schools. However, two questions have arisen: who teaches the children and what are they taught? The qualifications of teachers and the content of Islamic religious education are the most important issues in connection with the development of appropriate education for Muslim children.